How have food enzymes improved bakery foods?

How have food enzymes improved bakery foods?


Food enzymes have come across a massive adoption trend ever since their initial use. The growth of the method of bread was a significant event in mankind’s history. After the 19th century, with agricultural mechanization, the quality of bread improved while its cost decreased; thus, white bread became a commodity within nearly everybody's reach. A significant element that contributed to the evolution of the baking market was the introduction of enzymes in the baking process, bakery food enzymes have come forth as a relevant industry segment.

What are food enzymes?

Food enzymes are complex components that act as catalysts and are widely used to increase food handling diversity, variety, and quality. Due to its various advantages, which include texture improvement, aroma & aroma, conservation, coagulation, and tenderization, food enzymes are often used for food processing.

All living cells produce enzymes, which are the natural catalysts for chemical responses. Their role in the processing of food has also been acknowledged for many decades. Even before this understanding about food enzymes, they have been used in several procedures such as tenderizing meat using papaya leaves, preparing soy sauce, making curd or cheese, baking, brewing, etc. Enzymes can be obtained from any living organism from animals to crops to microbial sources. Of the hundred or so enzymes used in plants, more than half are of microbial origin. Microbial food enzymes have been widely used in the food industry to improve food diversity, variety, and quality.

Why do food enzymes matter?

Food enzymes encourage good digestion and are especially useful to anyone who has an enzyme deficiency or susceptibility to food. They help the digestive tract to decompose foods that contain proteins, fats and carbohydrates that are difficult to digest. You can get more dietary value from every meal by releasing significant vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and macronutrients. They also assist relieve unpleasant symptoms of indigestion and food sensitivity, such as gas, bloating, constipation, and other problems.

It has been noted that food enzymes are of benefit to those who undergo cancer treatment versus the disease process itself, for example by reducing therapeutic complications. Food enzymes may also be useful in individuals with IBD who experience IBS symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea despite little or no active inflammation. Evidence of the effectiveness of OTC enzymes in improving muscle soreness is mixed, and several studies are small and outdated.

Food enzymes for the bakery sector

The first known use of food enzymes in baking dough conditioning products was in the 1950s after World War II. Due to improvements in biology and biochemical engineering, various enzyme applications commenced being explored. Enzymes in yeast had long been known to be used in the method of alcohol fermentation, but the layers that came into that phase and how that method could be applied to other products, such as meat, had not been fully fleshed out.

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Baking includes the use of food enzymes from three sources: flour endogenous enzymes, the metabolism-related enzymes in the main microorganisms and the dough-added exogenous enzymes. Supplementing flour and dough with enzyme improvers is a common practice for flour standardization and also as baking aids. Enzymes are normally added as a way of modifying the rheology of dough, gas retention and softness of the crumb in the bread production, changing dough rheology for pastries and biscuits, changing product wealth in cake production, and reducing the formation of acrylamide in bakeries.

The enzymes can be added separately or in complex combinations which can act synergistically in the manufacturing of baked products and their concentrations are generally very small. Bread is generally produced from wheat flour as raw material, a blend of starch, gluten, lipids, non-starch polysaccharides, and enzymes. After mixing flour, yeast, and water, complicated biochemical and biophysical procedures start, catalyzed by wheat enzymes and yeast, characterizing the dough stage. These procedures continue in the baking stage, giving rise to bread. Additional enzymes added to the bakery enhance the backing process control, allow for the use of various baking procedures, reduce process time, slow down the stalking and compensate for flour variability and chemical additives to be replaced.

To Sum Up

The food enzymes market is growing with an extensive adoption rate in the bakery industry. Fast forward to the present day, and one can see that most of the enzyme market has been taken over by food bacteria. As demand for natural ingredients has increased, biochemists have further explored food enzyme science. The linkage of chemicals in foods with diseases is a major factor in this demand. In certain countries, many chemical solutions used in the past for dough conditioning were banned because of their adverse effects on human health. Baked products that last longer and are good look are shunned as unhealthy chemical preservatives, replaced by natural solutions for the conditioning of the dough made with enzymes and other natural ingredients. The ever-increasing use of food enzymes across other application areas would push the global food enzymes market at a growth rate of 2.6% CAGR over the forecast period.